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Shiitake mushroom, Lentinus edodes (mycelium)

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    Lentinus edodes

    Shitake has been cultivated for more than a thousand years in Asia and is still appreciated particularly in Japan, China and Korea, where it is part of the culinary culture due to its nutritional value but is also thanks to its therapeutic virtues which have made it him a symbol of longevity. It is the second most consumed mushroom in the world after the button mushroom.

    Composition (per 100 g dry)

    -Lentinan (enzyme)
    -Vitamin B1 (0.25mg),
    -Vitamin B5 (11.60 mg)
    -Vitamin D2 (110 IU)
    -Niacin (20.40mg)
    -Riboflavin (2.30mg)
    -Selenium (0.076mg)
    -Sodium (18mg)
    -Iron (5.5mg)
    -Copper (1.23mg)
    -Calcium (23mg)

    Modern research began in the 1960s and now represents more than a thousand studies (1197). According to these studies it was recognized that it could act positively on a large number of pathologies, of which here are some references:

    • Antioxidant (4, 5, 7, 13, )
    • Anti-inflammatory (4)
    • Diabetes (2)
    • Hepatoprotective (5, 7)
    • Cancer (6, 9, 11, 12, 14, 15)
    • Immunomodulator (7, 8)
    • Covid 19 (8)
    • Hepatitis B (10)

    1. Bisen PS, Baghel RK, Sanodiya BS, Thakur GS, Prasad GB. Lentinus edodes: a macrofungus with pharmacological activities . Curr Med Chem. 2010;17(22):2419-30. doi:10.2174/092986710791698495. PMID: 20491636.

    2. Spim SRV, Pistila AMH, Pickler TB, Silva MT, Grotto D. Effects of Shiitake Culinary-Medicinal Mushroom, Lentinus edodes (Agaricomycetes), Bars on Lipid and Antioxidant Profiles in Individuals with Borderline High Cholesterol: A Double-Blind Randomized Clinical Trial. Int J Med Mushrooms. 2021;23(7):1-12. doi: 10.1615/IntJMedMushrooms.2021038773. PMID: 34375514.

    3. Alagbaoso CA, Mizuno M. Polysaccharides from Shiitake Culinary-Medicinal Mushroom Lentinus edodes (Agaricomycetes) Suppress pMLKL-Mediated Necroptotic Cell Death and Colitis in Mice . Int J Med Mushrooms. 2021;23(7):13-26. doi: 10.1615/IntJMedMushrooms.2021038850. PMID: 34375515.

    4. Diallo I, Boudard F, Morel S, Vitou M, Guzman C, Saint N, Michel A, Rapior S, Traoré L, Poucheret P, Fons F. Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Potential of Shiitake Culinary-Medicinal Mushroom, Lentinus edodes (Agaricomycetes), Sporophores from Various Culture Conditions. Int J Med Mushrooms . 2020;22(6):535-546. doi: 10.1615/IntJMedMushrooms.2020034864. PMID: 32865895.

    5. Song Int J Med Mushrooms. 2021;23(2):85-96. doi: 10.1615/IntJMedMushrooms.2021037648. PMID: 33639084.

    6. Ya G. A Lentinus edodes polysaccharide induces mitochondrial-mediated apoptosis in human cervical carcinoma HeLa cells. Int J Biol Macromol. 2017 Oct;103:676-682. doi: 10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2017.05.085. Epub 2017 May 17. PMID: 28528001.

    7. Nisar J, Mustafa I, Anwar H, Sohail MU, Hussain G, Ullah MI, Faisal MN, Bukhari SA, Basit A. Shiitake Culinary-Medicinal Mushroom, Lentinus edodes (Agaricomycetes): A Species with Antioxidant, Immunomodulatory, and Hepatoprotective Activities in Hypercholesterolemic Rats . Int J Med Mushrooms. 2017;19(11):981-990. doi: 10.1615/IntJMedMushrooms.2017024504. PMID: 29345560.

    8. Murphy EJ, Masterson C, Rezoagli E, O'Toole D, Major I, Stack GD, Lynch M, Laffey JG, Rowan NJ. β -Glucan extracts from the same edible shiitake mushroom Lentinus edodes produce differential in-vitro immunomodulatory and pulmonary cytoprotective effects - Implications for coronavirus disease (COVID-19) immunotherapies. Sci Total Approx. 2020 Aug 25;732:139330. doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.139330. Epub 2020 May 11. PMID: 32413619; PMCID: PMC7211630.

    9. Li W, Wang J, Chen Z, Gao Int J Biol Macromol. 2018 Aug;115:994-1001. doi: 10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2018.04.094. Epub 2018 Apr 22. PMID: 29694839.

    10. Zhao YM, Yang JM, Liu YH, Zhao M, Wang J. Ultrasound assisted extraction of polysaccharides from Lentinus edodes and its anti-hepatitis B activity in vitro . Int J Biol Macromol. 2018 Feb;107(Pt B):2217-2223. doi: 10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2017.10.100. Epub 2017 Oct 16. PMID: 29051096.

    11. Xu H, Zou S, Xu X, Zhang L. Anti-tumor effect of β -glucan from Lentinus edodes and the underlying mechanism . SciRep. 2016 Jun 29;6:28802. doi:10.1038/srep28802. PMID: 27353254; PMCID: PMC4926123.

    12. Wang J, Li W, Huang X, Liu Y, Li Q, Zheng Z, Wang K. A polysaccharide from Lentinus edodes inhibits human colon cancer cell proliferation and suppresses tumor growth in athymic nude mice. Oncotarget. 2017 Jan 3;8(1):610-623. doi:10.18632/oncotarget.13481. PMID: 27888812; PMCID: PMC5352182.

    13. Chen H, Ju Y, Li J, Yu M. Antioxidant activities of polysaccharides from Lentinus edodes and their significance for disease prevention . Int J Biol Macromol. 2012 Jan 1;50(1):214-8. doi: 10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2011.10.027. Epub 2011 Nov 6. PMID: 22085754.

    14. Balakrishnan B, Liang Q, Fenix ​​K, Tamang B, Hauben E, Ma L, Zhang W. Combining the Anticancer and Immunomodulatory Effects of Astragalus and Shiitake as an Integrated Therapeutic Approach . Nutrients. 2021 Jul 27;13(8):2564. doi:10.3390/nu13082564. PMID: 34444724; PMCID: PMC8401741.

    15. Vetchinkina E, Fomin A, Navolokin N, Shirokov A. Proteins and polysaccharides from vegetative mycelium of medicinal basidiomycete Lentinus edodes display cytotoxicity towards human and animal cancer cell lines. Int J Biol Macromol. 2022 Jan 15;195:398-411. doi: 10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2021.12.059. Epub 2021 Dec 16. PMID: 34921890.

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