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Reishi mushroom, Ganoderma lucidum (mycelium)

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    Ganoderma lucidum

    Reishi “divine or spiritual mushroom” or Mannentake “mushroom of 10,000 years or immortality” in Japanese and Ling chi, Ling zhi “Tree of life” in Chinese, all these names inform us of the enormous health potential of this family of unusual mushrooms, used for more than 2000 years in Asia.

    Its main singularity is its character, its particularly developed “adaptogenic” virtue.

    Components :

    More than 400 biologically active compounds (5)

    -Polysaccharides (+ 100) (2, 3, 4) (α/β-D-glucans) (6)
    -Triterpenoids (119) (2) hepatorotector, antihypertensive, cholesterol-lowering, antihistamine, anti-tumor, anti-engiogenic, anti-platelet aggregating effects (16)
    -Nucleotides (2, 5), including guanine, adenine (constituents of DNA and RNA, expression and storage of genetic information)
    -Nucleosides (adenosine, inosine, uridine) (6) (antiviral or anticancer agents)
    -Enzymes (5)
    -Sterols (2, 5)
    -Beta-glucan (only in mycelium) reduces free radicals, stimulates nitric oxide production of macrophages
    -Ganoderemic acid A
    -Fatty acids, vitamins, minerals, proteins (5)
    -Proteins (5), proteins (LZ-8, LZ-9) (6)

    According to these studies it was recognized that it could act positively on a large number of pathologies, of which here are some references:

    • Antimicrobial
    • Antioxidant (3)
    • Anti-inflammatory (arthritis, etc.) (10,11, )
    • Anti viral (including HIV) (2)
    • Antineurodegenerative (3)
    • Atherosclerosis (2)
    • Prevention of cardiovascular diseases (12)
    • Stimulates the production of macrophages and T lymphocytes
    • immunomodulator (polysaccharides and triterpenes) (3)
    • Anti-tumor by biological modification of host cells
    • Anti-cancer (adjuvant) (1, 2, 15) colon cancer (17)
    • Prostatitis
    • Slowed growth of leukemia cells
    • Reduction of prostate inflammation
    • Production of interleukins-2, -6, -8 (anti-inflammatory of the immune system)
    • Immunomodulator (15)
    • Reduction of the effects of age (2, 8, ), protection of the skin (14)
    • Promotes sleep (2)
    • Coronary vasodilator
    • Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS)
    • Hypolipidemic (2) 
    • Hypoglycemic
    • Hepatoprotector (2)
    • Kidney protection (acute kidney injury, chronic kidney disease) (7)
    • Chemoprotective (2,), chemopreventive (11)
    • Radioprotector (2, 9) ( β -glucan)
    • Adjuvant: leukemia, carcinoma, hepatitis, diabetes (2, 3, 13, )

    Mechanism of anticancer activity  (15):

    (1) activation/modulation of the host immune response,
    (2) direct cytotoxicity on cancer cells,
    (3) inhibition of tumor-induced angiogenesis,
    (4) inhibition of cancer cell proliferation and invasive metastatic behavior,
    (5) deactivation of carcinogens with protection of cells.

    1.Sohretoglu D, Huang S. Ganoderma lucidum Polysaccharides as An Anti-cancer Agent. Anticancer Agents Med Chem. 2018;18(5):667-674. doi:10.2174/1871520617666171113121246. PMID: 29141563; PMCID: PMC6624854.

    2. Sanodiya BS, Thakur GS, Baghel RK, Prasad GB, Bisen PS. Ganoderma lucidum: a potent pharmacological macrofungus. Curr Pharm Biotechnol. 2009 Dec;10(8):717-42. doi:10.2174/138920109789978757. PMID: 19939212.

    3. Seweryn E, Ziała A, Gamian A. Health-Promoting of Polysaccharides Extracted from Ganoderma lucidum . Nutrients. 2021 Aug 7;13(8):2725. doi:10.3390/nu13082725. PMID: 34444885; PMCID: PMC8400705.

    4. Zeng P, Chen Y, Zhang L, Xing M. Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharide used for treating physical frailty in China. Prog Mol Biol Transl Sci. 2019;163:179-219. doi: 10.1016/bs.pmbts.2019.02.009. Epub 2019 Mar 26. PMID: 31030748.

    5. Ahmad MF. Ganoderma lucidum: Persuasive biologically active constituents and their health endorsement . Biomed Pharmacother. 2018 Nov;107:507-519. doi: 10.1016/j.biopha.2018.08.036. Epub 2018 Aug 13. PMID: 30114634.

    6.Ahmad R, Riaz M, Khan A, Aljamea A, Algheryafi M, Sewaket D, Alqathama A. Ganoderma lucidum (Reishi) an edible mushroom; a comprehensive and critical review of its nutritional, cosmeceutical, mycochemical, pharmacological, clinical, and toxicological properties. Phytother Res. 2021 Nov;35(11):6030-6062. doi:10.1002/ptr.7215. Epub 2021 Aug 19. PMID: 34411377.

    7. Geng X, Zhong D, Su L, Lin Z, Yang B. Preventive and therapeutic effect of Ganoderma lucidum on kidney injuries and diseases . Adv Pharmacol. 2020;87:257-276. doi: 10.1016/bs.apha.2019.10.003. Epub 2019 Nov 20. PMID: 32089235.

    8.Gurovic MSV, Viceconte FR, Pereyra MT, Bidegain MA, Cubitto MA. DNA damaging potential of Ganoderma lucidum extracts . J Ethnopharmacol. 2018 May 10;217:83-88. doi: 10.1016/j.jep.2018.02.005. Epub 2018 Feb 6. PMID: 29421594.

    9. Gonzalez A, Atienza V, Montoro A, Soriano JM. Use of Ganoderma lucidum (Ganodermataceae, Basidiomycota) as Radioprotector . Nutrients. 2020 Apr 19;12(4):1143. doi:10.3390/nu12041143. PMID: 32325828; PMCID: PMC7230513.

    10. Bhardwaj N, Katyal P, Sharma AK. Suppression of inflammatory and allergic responses by pharmacologically potent fungus Ganoderma lucidum . Recent Pat Inflamm Allergy Drug Discov. 2014;8(2):104-17. doi:10.2174/1872213x08666140619110657. PMID: 24948193.

    11. Koo MH, Chae HJ, Lee JH, Suh SS, Youn UJ. Antiinflammatory lanostane triterpenoids from Ganoderma lucidum . Nat Prod Res. 2021 Nov;35(22):4295-4302. doi:10.1080/14786419.2019.1705815. Epub 2019 Dec 24. PMID: 31872776.

    12.Meng J, Yang B. Protective Effect of Ganoderma (Lingzhi) on Cardiovascular System. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2019;1182:181-199. doi:10.1007/978-981-32-9421-9_7. PMID: 31777019.

    13.Liu Q, Tie L. Preventive and Therapeutic Effect of Ganoderma (Lingzhi) on Diabetes. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2019;1182:201-215. doi:10.1007/978-981-32-9421-9_8. PMID: 31777020.

    14. Yin Z, Yang B, Ren H. Preventive and Therapeutic Effect of Ganoderma (Lingzhi) on Skin Diseases and Care . Adv Exp Med Biol. 2019;1182:311-321. doi:10.1007/978-981-32-9421-9_14. PMID: 31777026.

    15.Boh B. Ganoderma lucidum: a potential for biotechnological production of anti-cancer and immunomodulatory drugs . Recent Pat Anticancer Drug Discov. 2013 Sep;8(3):255-87. doi:10.2174/1574891x113089990036. PMID: 23227951.

    16.Boh B, Berovic M, Zhang J, Zhi-Bin L. Ganoderma lucidum and its pharmaceutically active compounds. Biotechnol Annu Rev. 2007;13:265-301. doi: 10.1016/S1387-2656(07)13010-6. PMID: 17875480.

    17. Bai JH, Xu J, Zhao J, Zhang R. Ganoderma lucidum Polysaccharide Enzymatic Hydrolysate Suppresses the Growth of Human Colon Cancer Cells via Inducing Apoptosis . Cell Transplant. 2020 Jan-Dec;29:963689720931435. doi:10.1177/0963689720931435. PMID: 32495637; PMCID: PMC7563825.

    18.Li Y, Liu H, Qi H, Tang W, Zhang C, Liu Z, Liu Y, Wei X, Kong Z, Jia S, Du B, Yuan J, Wang C, Li M. Probiotic fermentation of Ganoderma lucidum fruiting body extracts promoted its immunostimulatory activity in mice with dexamethasone-induced immunosuppression . Biomed Pharmacother. 2021 Sep;141:111909. doi: 10.1016/j.biopha.2021.111909. Epub 2021 Jul 10. PMID: 34328088.

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