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Lytchee sinensis (seed)

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    Raw seed macerate

    Lytchee is a tropical fruit which is part of traditional Chinese culture, both gastronomic and medicinal, and modern studies have confirmed the indications for which TCM (traditional Chinese medicine) used Lytchee seeds. Around a hundred studies, almost all carried out by Chinese teams, explore avenues around cancers (apoptosis), Alzheimer's disease, diabetes, as a neuro-protector, reno-protector and against obesity.

    Ethnobotany : 

    Traditionally used in TCM (traditional Chinese medicine) for these virtues:

    -Modulation of blood sugar and lipids




    Seed components :


    -procyanidin A2 and (2R), (possible inhibition of neuroinflammatory cytokines, inhibition of apoptosis and possible tumor necrosis factor)

    -naringenin-7-O-(3-O- α L-rhamnopyranosyl- β -D-glucopyranoside), 

    -catechin  (neuroprotective)

    Seed Properties  (scientifically demonstrated):

    -Anticancers (1)

    -Inhibition of apoptosis (4,5,7,15,16)

    -Antibacterial (1)

    -Antioxidants (1)

    -Antiglycants (diabetes, antihyperglycemics, type II diabetes mellitus (T2DM)) (1,6,9)

    -Regulation of lipids (1.9)

    -Neuroprotection, anti-neuro-inflammatory (1,3,4,5,7,8,14)

    -Anti-neurotoxic effect  (1)

    -Reno-protective effect (1)

    -Alzheimer's disease (2,4,6,7,8,14)

    -Obesity and modulation of the intestinal microbiota (10)

    -Pancreatic lipase inhibitory activity  (11)

    -Urological neoplasms including prostate cancer (12,13)

    1.Zhang Y, Jin D, An X, Duan L, Duan Y, Lian F. Lychee Seed as a Potential Hypoglycemic Agent, and Exploration of its Underlying Mechanisms . Front Pharmacol. 2021 Oct 8;12:737803. doi: 10.3389/fphar.2021.737803. PMID: 34690773; PMCID: PMC8531476.

    2. Qiu WQ, Pan R, Tang Y, Zhou XG, Wu JM, Yu L, Law BY, Ai W, ​​Yu CL, Qin DL, Wu AG. Lychee seed polyphenol inhibits Aβ-induced activation of NLRP3 inflammasome via the LRP1/AMPK mediated autophagy induction . Biomed Pharmacother. 2020 Oct;130:110575. doi: 10.1016/j.biopha.2020.110575. Epub 2020 Aug 5. PMID: 32768883.

    3.Xiong R, Zhou XG, Tang Y, Wu JM, Sun YS, Teng JF, Pan R, Law BY, Zhao Y, Qiu WQ, Wang XL, Liu S, Wang YL, Yu L, Yu CL, Mei QB, Qin DL, Wu AG. Lychee seed polyphenol protects the blood-brain barrier through inhibiting Aβ(25-35)-induced NLRP3 inflammasome activation via the AMPK/mTOR/ULK1-mediated autophagy in bEnd.3 cells and APP/PS1 mice. Phytother Res. 2021 Feb;35(2):954-973. doi:10.1002/ptr.6849. Epub 2020 Sep 6. PMID: 32893437.

    4. Zhao Y, Zeng Y, Wu A, Yu C, Tang Y, Wang via NF-κB Signaling Pathway. Front Pharmacol. 2018 Apr 23;9:380. doi: 10.3389/fphar.2018.00380. PMID: 29740316; PMCID: PMC5925968.

    5. Tang Y, Xiong R, Wu AG, Yu CL, Zhao Y, Qiu WQ, Wang XL, Teng JF, Liu J, Chen HX, Wu JM, Qin DL. Polyphenols Derived from Lychee Seed Suppress Aβ (1-42)-Induced Neuroinflammation . Int J Mol Sci. 2018 Jul 20;19(7):2109. doi:10.3390/ijms19072109. PMID: 30036972; PMCID: PMC6073121.

    6. Tang Y, Yu C, Wu J, Chen H, Zeng Y, Wang X, Yang L, Mei Q, Cao S, Qin D. Lychee seed extract protects against neuronal injury and improves cognitive function in rats with type II diabetes mellitus with cognitive impairment. Int J Mol Med. 2018 Jan;41(1):251-263. doi: 10.3892/ijmm.2017.3245. Epub 2017 Nov 9. PMID: 29138799; PMCID: PMC5746317.

    7.Wang of Alzheimer's Disease. Nutrients. 2017 Feb 4;9(2):105. doi:10.3390/nu9020105. PMID: 28165366; PMCID: PMC5331536.

    8.Zhang X, Wang Y, Qin Q, Wang Y, Xu J, He X. Pronounced anti-neuroinflammatory jasmonates and terpenes isolated from lychee seeds . Fitoterapia. 2021 Jul;152:104924. doi: 10.1016/j.fitote.2021.104924. Epub 2021 May 11. PMID: 33984432.

    9. Contreras-Castro AI, Oidor-Chan VH, Bustamante-Camilo P, Pelayo-Zaldívar C, Díaz de León-Sánchez F, Mendoza-Espinoza JA. Chemical Characterization and Evaluation of the Antihyperglycemic Effect of Lychee ( Litchi chinensis Sonn.) cv. Brewster. J Med Food. 2022 Jan;25(1):61-69. doi: 10.1089/jmf.2021.0098. Epub 2021 Dec 7. PMID: 34874786.

    10. Xiang JY, Chi YY, Han JX, Kong P, Liang Z, Wang D, Xiang H, Xie Q. Litchi chinensis seed prevents obesity and modulates the gut microbiota and mycobiota compositions in high-fat diet-induced obese zebrafish. Food Function. 2022 Mar 7;13(5):2832-2845. doi:10.1039/d1fo03991a. PMID: 35179169.

    11.Mhatre SV, Bhagit AA, Yadav RP. Proteinaceous Pancreatic Lipase Inhibitor from the Seed of Litchi chinensis . Food Technol Biotechnol. 2019 Mar;57(1):113-118. doi: 10.17113/ftb. PMID: 31316283; PMCID: PMC6600303.

    12. Chang M, Zhu D, Chen Y, Zhang W, Liu X, Li XL, Cheng Z, Su Z, Zhang J, Lu Y, Guo H. Total Flavonoids of Litchi Seed Attenuate Prostate Cancer Progression Via Inhibiting AKT/mTOR and NF-kB Signaling Pathways. Front Pharmacol. 2021 Sep 23;12:758219. doi: 10.3389/fphar.2021.758219. PMID: 34630125; PMCID: PMC8495171.

    13.Guo H, Luo H, Yuan H, Xia Y, Shu P, Huang X, Lu Y, Liu X, Keller ET, Sun D, ​​Deng J, Zhang J. Author Correction: Litchi seed extracts diminish prostate cancer progression via induction of apoptosis and attenuation of EMT through Akt/GSK-3β signaling. SciRep. 2021 Jul 20;11(1):15201. doi:10.1038/s41598-021-94623-5. Erratum for: Sci Rep. 2017 Jan 30;7:41656. PMID: 34285337; PMCID: PMC8292357.

    14. Sun Y, Wu A , Li via the AKT/GSK-3β pathway. Pharm Biol. 2020 Dec;58(1):35-43. doi:10.1080/13880209.2019.1697298. PMID: 31881157; PMCID: PMC6968628.

    15. Hsu CP, Lin CC, Huang CC, Lin YH, Chou JC, Tsia YT, Su JR, Chung YC. Induction of apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in human colorectal carcinoma by Litchi seed extract. J Biomed Biotechnol. 2012;2012:341479. doi:10.1155/2012/341479. Epub 2012 Oct 3. PMID: 23093841; PMCID: PMC3470890.

    16.Liao Y, Luo Z, Liu Y, Xue W, He S, Chen X, Ren H, Yang X, Zhu D, Su Z, Huang Q, Guo H. Total flavonoids of Litchi seed attenuate stem cell-like properties in breast cancer by regulating Notch3 signaling pathway. J Ethnopharmacol. 2023 Apr 6;305:116133. doi: 10.1016/j.jep.2023.116133. Epub 2023 Jan 2. PMID: 36603788.

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