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Houttuynia cordata (whole plant)

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    Houttuynia cordata Thunb

    Traditionally Houttuynia cordata is primarily an edible plant used throughout South Asia but also present in Nepal. In Japan it is Doku-Dami (jyuuyaku) (avoid poison). One of the highly odorous substances found in the plant is decanol acetaldehyde which has been shown to be responsible for the anti-inflammatory and antibacterial effects of Houttuynia. It is also particularly rich in quercetin and isoquercetin which are very powerful flavonoids for strengthening capillaries, preventing aging and purifying the blood (this is the same quercetin which is found in red onions for example). The flower is rich in minerals, potassium, magnesium, sodium (Hypertension, diuresis). Antibacterial effects against Trichophyton, staphylococci, gonococci and tuberculosis bacilli were also found.

    Traditionally used in China against pneumonia and lung abscesses, dysentery, colds, fever and mumps. Studies have shown organ protective activity, such as reducing inflammatory factors on lung damage.

    More than 350 studies mainly done in Asia because this plant has been culturally used for centuries in cooking and in Asian medicine. Here is an overview of these studies:

    Constituents :

    209 metabolites were isolated, 135 in roots, 146 in stems, 158 in leaves (91 are shared)

    Phenolic acids,

    Essential oils (methyl n-nonyl ketone, lauryl aldehyde, capryl aldehyde)

    Flavonoids (quercetin, rutin, hyperin, quercitrin, isoquercitrin)

    Alkaloids (norcepharadione B) and polysaccharides

    hypersaccharide, quercitrin, quercetin

    Studies :

    -Anti-inflammatory (2)

    -Oxidative stress (2)

    -Antioxidant (2)

    -Regulation of immunity by strengthening the immune barriers of the oral cavity, vagina and gastrointestinal tract (3)

    - Liver, lung, breast and colon tumors (3)

    -Restoration of the alteration of the intestinal flora (5)

    - flu, H1N1 (6)

    -Covid 19 (7)

    -Hepatoprotector (7)

    -Anti viral Covid 19 (among a selection of 93 plants) (8)

    1. Wu Z, Deng X, Hu Q, Xiao X, Jiang J, Ma X, Wu M. Houttuynia cordata Thunb: An Ethnopharmacological Review . Front Pharmacol. 2021 Sep 1;12:714694. doi: 10.3389/fphar.2021.714694. PMID: 34539401; PMCID: PMC8440972.

    2. Shingnaisui K, Dey T, Manna P, Kalita J. Therapeutic potentials of Houttuynia cordata Thunb. against inflammation and oxidative stress : A review. J Ethnopharmacol. 2018 Jun 28;220:35-43. doi: 10.1016/j.jep.2018.03.038. Epub 2018 Mar 30. PMID: 29605674; PMCID: PMC7127360.

    3. Rafiq S, Hao H, Ijaz M, Raza A. Pharmacological Effects of Houttuynia cordata Thunb ( H. cordata ): A Comprehensive Review. Pharmaceuticals (Basel). 2022 Aug 29;15(9):1079. doi:10.3390/ph15091079. PMID: 36145299; PMCID: PMC9501394.

    4. Qi S, Zha L, Peng Y, Luo W, Chen K, Li X, Huang D, Yin D. Quality and Metabolomics Analysis of Houttuynia cordata Based on HS-SPME/GC-MS. Molecules . 2022 Jun 18;27(12):39 21. doi: 10.3390/molecules27123921. PMID: 35745045; PMCID: PMC9228095.

    5. Cen L, Yi T, Hao Y, Shi C, Shi X, Lu Y, Chen D, Zhu H. Houttuynia cordata polysaccharides alleviate ulcerative colitis by restoring intestinal homeostasis . Chin J Nat Med. 2022 Dec;20(12):914-924. doi: 10.1016/S1875-5364(22)60220-6. PMID: 36549805.

    6. Ling LJ, Lu Y, Zhang YY, Zhu HY, Tu P, Li H, Chen DF. Flavonoids from Houttuynia cordata attenuate H1N1-induced acute lung injury in mice via inhibition of influenza virus and Toll-like receptor signaling. Phytomedicine . 2020 Feb;67:153150. doi: 10.1016/j.phymed.2019.153150. Epub 2019 Dec 16. PMID: 31958713.

    7. Ghosh A, Ghosh B, Parihar N, Ilaweibaphyrnai M, Panda SR, Alexander A, Chella N, Murty U, Naidu V, Kumar GJ, Pemmaraju DB. Nutraceutical prospects of Houttuynia cordata against the infectious viruses . Food Biosci. 2022 Dec;50:101977. doi: 10.1016/j.fbio.2022.101977. Epub 2022 Aug 30. PMID: 36059903; PMCID: PMC9423882.

    8. Adhikari B, Marasini BP, Rayamajhee B, Bhattarai BR, Lamichhane G, Khadayat K, Adhikari A, Khanal S, Parajuli N. Potential roles of medicinal plants for the treatment of viral diseases focusing on COVID-19 : A review. Phytother Res. 2021 Mar;35(3):1298-1312. doi:10.1002/ptr.6893. Epub 2020 Oct 9. PMID: 33037698; PMCID: PMC7675695.

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