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Enoki mushroom, Flammulina velutipes (mycelium)

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    Enokitake, Enoki in Japanese, “snowy peak mushroom” and “blueberries”.

    It was in fact the Japanese who were the first to use Flammulina velutipes extensively in gastronomy and mainly in soups. Some researchers have noted that the producers of these mushrooms very rarely reported cancers and research began in the 1960s on the anti-tumor properties in particular. 

    2,193  studies since the 1970s and more than a hundred per year since 2010. According to these studies it was recognized that it could act positively on a large number of pathologies, of which here are some references:

    Studies :

    • Neuroprotective (16)
    • Antioxidant (2, 6, 16, 17)
    • Antibacterial (96% Staphylococcus aureus) (94.8% Escherichia coli) (4, 17), Bacillus subtilis (17) Streptococcus mutans (14)
    • Anti-inflammatory (2)
    • Immunomodulator (2, 8, 9, 10, 18)
    • Immunoregulator (8)
    • Anti-hyperlipidermic (2)
    • Repair of peripheral nerve damage, sciatic nerve (4)
    • High nutritional properties (4)
    • Antitumor (Enokidopine  B and D) (5) 
    • Antimalaria, Plasmodium falciparum (Enokidopine  A and C) (5) 
    • Microbiota regulation, intestinal health (3, 7, 8, 10), Prebiotic (12)
    • Metabolic syndrome (3, 7)
    • Increase  glutathione rate (16)
    • Improvement of memory disorders, polysaccharides (9)
    • Increased Superoxide dismutasses (16)
    • Increased Superoxide dismutase (in the liver) (10) 
    • Prevention and reduction of hepatitis B (11)
    • Oral hygiene (14)
    • Inhibition of pathogenic fungi, polysaccharides (15)
    • T lymphocytes (13)

    Composition :

    • Terpenes (1)
    • Polysaccharides (2,9, 15), Polysaccharide 1 (tumor necrosis factor) (11)
    • Heteropolysaccharide: D-mannose, D-galactose, L-fucose, D-glucose (18)
    • Antimicrobial sesquiterpenes (5)
    • Enokidopine (ABCDF)(5)
    • Syringic acid (6)
    • Arabitol (reduction of caries and mutant Stpeptococcus) (14)
    • 6 Flavonoids, including abrutin, epicatechin, phillyrin, apigenin, kaempferol, formononetin (16)

    1.Fukushima-Sakuno E. Bioactive small secondary metabolites from the mushrooms Lentinula edodes and Flammulina velutipes . J Antibiot (Tokyo). 2020 Oct;73(10):687-696. doi:10.1038/s41429-020-0354-x. Epub 2020 Jul 30. PMID: 32733077.

    2. Wang Y, Zhang H. Advances in the extraction, purification, structural-property relationships and bioactive molecular mechanism of Flammulina velutipes polysaccharides : A review. Int J Biol Macromol. 2021 Jan 15;167:528-538. doi: 10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2020.11.208. Epub 2020 Dec 2. PMID: 33278442.

    3.Hao Y, Wang X, Yuan S, Wang Y, Liao Int J Biol Macromol. 2021 Jan 15;167:1308-1318. doi: 10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2020.11.085. Epub 2020 Nov 14. PMID: 33202270.

    4. Chen F, Wu M, Wu P, Xiao A, Ke M, Huselstein C, Cai L, Tong Z, Chen Y. Natural Flammulina velutipes -Based Nerve Guidance Conduit as a Potential Biomaterial for Peripheral Nerve Regeneration: In Vitro and In Live Studies. ACS Biomater Sci Eng. 2021 Aug 9;7(8):3821-3834. doi: 10.1021/acsbiomaterials.1c00304. Epub 2021 Jul 23. PMID: 34297535.

    5. Tabuchi A, Fukushima-Sakuno E, Osaki-Oka K, Futamura Y, Motoyama T, Osada H, Ishikawa NK, Nagasawa E, Tokimoto K. Productivity and bioactivity of enokipodins AD of Flammulina rossica and Flammulina velutipes . Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2020 May;84(5):876-886. doi:10.1080/09168451.2020.1714421. Epub 2020 Jan 16. PMID: 31942814.

    6. Ma S, Zhang H, Xu J. Characterization, Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammation Capacities of Fermented Flammulina velutipes Polyphenols . Molecules. 2021 Oct 14;26(20):6205. doi:10.3390/molecules26206205. PMID: 34684784; PMCID: PMC8537206.

    7. Zhao R, Ji Y, Chen X, Hu Q, Zhao L. Polysaccharide from Flammulina velutipes attenuates markers of metabolic syndrome by modulating the gut microbiota and lipid metabolism in high fat diet-fed mice . Food Function. 2021 Aug 2;12(15):6964-6980. doi:10.1039/d1fo00534k. PMID: 34137411.

    8.Ye J, Wang microbiota in rats . J Anim Physiol Anim Nutr (Berl). 2020 Mar;104(2):735-748. doi:10.1111/jpn.13290. Epub 2020 Jan 3. PMID: 31900998.

    9. Su A, Yang W, Zhao L, Pei F, Yuan B, Zhong L, Ma G, Hu Q. Flammulina velutipes polysaccharides improve scopolamine-induced learning and memory impairment in mice by modulating gut microbiota composition . Food Function. 2018 Mar 1;9(3):1424-1432. doi:10.1039/c7fo01991b. Epub 2018 Feb 12. PMID: 29431777.

    10.Liang Q, Zhao Q, Hao X, Wang J, Ma C , Xi Front Nutr. 2022 Jan 28;9:841230. doi:10.3389/fnut.2022.841230. PMID: 35155543; PMCID: PMC8832141.

    11.Zhang T, Ye J, Xue C, Wang Y, Liao W, Mao L, Yuan M, Lian S. Structural characteristics and bioactive properties of a novel polysaccharide from Flammulina velutipes . Carbohydr Polym. 2018 Oct 1;197:147-156. doi: 10.1016/j.carbpol.2018.05.069. Epub 2018 May 25. PMID: 30007599.

    12.Zhao R, Ji Y, Chen X, Su A, Ma G, Chen G, Hu Q, Zhao L. Effects of a β -type glycosidic polysaccharide from Flammulina velutipes on anti-inflammation and gut microbiota modulation in colitis mice . Food Function. 2020 May 1;11(5):4259-4274. doi:10.1039/c9fo03017d. Epub 2020 May 1. PMID: 32356528.

    13. Yan ZF, Liu NX, Mao XX, Li Y, Li CT. Activation effects of polysaccharides of Flammulina velutipes mycorrhizae on the T lymphocyte immune function . J Immunol Res. 2014;2014:285421. doi:10.1155/2014/285421. Epub 2014 Jul 14. PMID: 25133194; PMCID: PMC4122143.

    14. Cui C, Xu H, Yang H, Wang R, Xiang Y, Li B , Zhou Streptococcus mutans . Int J Med Mushrooms. 2020;22(2):115-124. doi: 10.1615/IntJMedMushrooms.2020033335. PMID: 32479000.

    15. Kashina S, Flores Villavicencio LL, Balleza M, Sabanero GB, Tsutsumi V, López MS. Extracts from Flammulina velutipes Inhibit the Adhesion of Pathogenic Fungi to Epithelial Cells . Pharmacognosy Res. 2016 Mar;8(Suppl 1):S56-60. doi:10.4103/0974-8490.178648. PMID: 27114694; PMCID: PMC4821109.

    16. Hu Q, Yu J, Yang W, Kimatu BM, Fang Y, Ma N, Pei F. Identification of flavonoids from Flammulina velutipes and its neuroprotective effect on pheochromocytoma-12 cells. Food Chem. 2016 Aug 1;204:274-282. doi: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2016.02.138. Epub 2016 Feb 24. PMID: 26988502.

    17.Dong YR, Cheng SJ, Qi GH, Yang ZP, Yin SY, Chen GT. Antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of Flammulina velutipes polysaccharides and polysaccharide-iron(III) complex [corrected]. Carbohydr Polym. 2017 Apr 1;161:26-32. doi: 10.1016/j.carbpol.2016.12.069. Epub 2016 Dec 29. Erratum in: Carbohydr Polym. 2017 Jun 1;165:470. PMID: 28189237.

    18. Wang WH, Zhang JS, Feng T, Deng J, Lin CC, Fan H, Yu WJ, Bao HY, Jia W. Structural elucidation of a polysaccharide from Flammulina velutipes and its immunomodulation activities on mouse B lymphocytes. SciRep. 2018 Feb 15;8(1):3120. doi:10.1038/s41598-018-21375-0. PMID: 29449636; PMCID: PMC5814432.

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