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Armillaria mushroom, Armillaria mellea (mycelium)

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    Armillaria mellea is one of the most powerful mycelia studied for medicine. It is used in TCM (Traditional Chinese Medicine) under the name “Tianma”. It can be noted that the mycelium of Armillaria mellea is bioluminescens but not the carpophore (the fruiting body). Take 3 drops in the morning.

    • Armillaric acid ( Antibiotic)
    • L-triptophan (precursor of serotonin)
    • Sesquiterpenes
    • Sphingolipids
    • Polysaccharides
    • Enzymes
    • Peptides
    • Adenosine derivatives
    • Ascorbic acid
    • tannins
    • phenolic compounds
    • B-carotenes
    • Lycopenes
    • carbohydrates
    • Sterols

    191 studies since 1948 and around ten per year since 2013.

    According to these studies it was recognized that it could act positively on a large number of pathologies, of which here are some references:

    • Antidepressant (3,4)
    • Anti bacterial (11)
    • Antioxidant (5, 7, 9, 15)
    • Antibiotic (14)
    • Anti-inflammatory (3.8)
    • Memory (6)
    • Alzheimer’s (7)
    • Cancer (1, 2, 10, 12, 13)
    • Epilepsy (16)

    1. Leu YS, Chen YJ, Chen CC, Huang HL. Induction of Autophagic Death of Human Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cells by Armillaridin from Armillaria mellea . Am J Chin Med. 2019;47(6):1365-1380. doi: 10.1142/S0192415X19500708. Epub 2019 Sep 5. PMID: 31488037.

    2. Chen YJ, Chen CC, Huang HL. Induction of apoptosis by Armillaria mellea constitute armillarikin in human hepatocellular carcinoma . Onco Targets Ther. 2016 Aug 1;9:4773-83. doi: 10.2147/OTT.S103940. PMID: 27536140; PMCID: PMC4975141.

    3. Lin YE, Wang HL, Lu KH, Huang YJ, Panyod S, Liu WT, Yang SH, Chen MH, Lu YS, Sheen LY. Water extract of Armillaria mellea (Vahl) P. Kumm. Alleviates the depression-like behaviors in acute- and chronic mild stress-induced rodent models via anti-inflammatory action . J Ethnopharmacol. 2021 Jan 30;265:113395. doi: 10.1016/j.jep.2020.113395. Epub 2020 Sep 19. PMID: 32956757.

    4.Zhang T , Du Y, Liu X, Sun Nat Prod Res. 2021 Mar;35(6):1042-1045. doi:10.1080/14786419.2019.1614577. Epub 2019 May 28. PMID: 31135223.

    5.Erbiai EH, da Silva LP, Saidi R, Lamrani Z, Esteves da Silva JCG, Maouni A. Chemical Composition, Bioactive Compounds, and Antioxidant Activity of Two Wild Edible Mushrooms Armillaria mellea and Macrolepiota procera from Two Countries (Morocco and Portugal) . Biomolecules. 2021 Apr 14;11(4):575. doi:10.3390/biom11040575. PMID: 33920034; PMCID: PMC8070987.

    6.Li H, Xu G, Yuan G. Effects of an Armillaria mellea Polysaccharide on Learning and Memory of D-Galactose-Induced Aging Mice . Front Pharmacol. 2022 Jul 18;13:919920. doi: 10.3389/fphar.2022.919920. PMID: 35924065; PMCID: PMC9341523.

    7.An S, Lu W, Zhang Y, Yuan Q, Wang D. Pharmacological Basis for Use of Armillaria mellea Polysaccharides in Alzheimer's Disease: Antiapoptosis and Antioxidation . Oxid Med Cell Longev. 2017;2017:4184562. doi:10.1155/2017/4184562. Epub 2017 Sep 10. PMID: 29081887; PMCID: PMC5610814.

    8. Chang CC, Cheng JJ, Lee IJ, Lu MK. Purification, structural elucidation, and anti-inflammatory activity of xylosyl galactofucan from Armillaria mellea . Int J Biol Macromol. 2018 Jul 15;114:584-591. doi: 10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2018.02.033. Epub 2018 Feb 13. PMID: 29452183.

    9. Lung MY, Chang YC. Antioxidant properties of the edible Basidiomycete Armillaria mellea in submerged cultures. Int J Mol Sci. 2011;12(10):6367-84. doi:10.3390/ijms12106367. Epub 2011 Sep 26. PMID: 22072892; PMCID: PMC3210983.

    10. Wu J, Zhou J, Lang Y, Yao L, Xu H, Shi H, Xu S. A polysaccharide from Armillaria mellea exhibits strong in vitro anticancer activity via apoptosis-involved mechanisms. Int J Biol Macromol. 2012 Nov;51(4):663-7. doi: 10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2012.06.040. Epub 2012 Jul 3. PMID: 22771925.

    11. Donnelly DM, Abe F, Coveney D, Fukuda N, O'Reilly J, Polonsky J, Prangé T. Antibacterial sesquiterpene aryl esters from Armillaria mellea . J Nat Prod. 1985 Jan-Feb;48(1):10-6. doi:10.1021/np50037a002. PMID: 4040154.

    12. Liu TP, Chen CC, Shiao PY, Shieh HR, Chen YY, Chen YJ. Armillaridin, a Honey Medicinal Mushroom, Armillaria mellea (Higher Basidiomycetes) Component, Inhibits Differentiation and Activation of Human Macrophages . Int J Med Mushrooms. 2015;17(2):161-8. doi:10.1615/intjmedmushrooms.v17.i2.70. PMID: 25746621.

    13. Chi CW, Chen CC, Chen YJ. Therapeutic and radiosensitizing effects of armillaridin on human esophageal cancer cells . Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2013;2013:459271. doi:10.1155/2013/459271. Epub 2013 Jun 24. PMID: 23864890; PMCID: PMC3707235.

    14. Obuchi T, Kondoh H, Watanabe N, Tamai M, Omura S, Yang JS, Liang XT. Armillaric acid, a new antibiotic produced by Armillaria mellea . Planta Med. 1990 Apr;56(2):198-201. doi:10.1055/s-2006-960925. PMID: 2353068.

    15. Lai MN, Ng LT. Antioxidant and antiedema properties of solid-state cultured honey mushroom, Armillaria mellea (higher Basidiomycetes), extracts and their polysaccharide and polyphenol contents. Int J Med Mushrooms. 2013;15(1):1-8. doi: 10.1615/intjmedmushr.v15.i1.10. PMID: 23510279.

    16. Ojemann LM, Nelson WL, Shin DS, Rowe AO, Buchanan RA. Tian ma, an ancient Chinese herb, offers new options for the treatment of epilepsy and other conditions. Epilepsy Behav. 2006 Mar;8(2):376-83. doi: 10.1016/j.yebeh.2005.12.009. Epub 2006 Feb 7. PMID: 16461011.

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