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Andrographis paniculata (aerial part)

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    Andrographis paniculata (Burm.f.)

    Andrographis paniculata is traditionally used in the treatment of upper respiratory tract infections, sinusitis, as a liver tonic and for cardiovascular health, dewormer, blood purifier, against edema, anorexia, diarrhea, flu , leprosy, leptospirosis, malaria, rabies, syphilis, tuberculosis and since the 1990s HIV/AIDS (see study No. 1 and 3).

    344 compounds: terpenoid lactones, flavonoids, phenolic acids, triterpenes, volatile compounds, among which more than half of the compounds do not yet have reported pharmacological activities. Terpenoid lactones and flavonoids are the main bioactive classes of Andrographis paniculata compounds that are responsible for pharmacological activities such as anticancer and antioxidant activities.

    There is another substance andrographolide which would have most of the properties: analgesic, antipyretic, antiretroviral, antiproliferative, antimalarial, antithrombotic, antihyperglycemic, antiurolethial, antilesihmaniasis, hepatoprotective, immunomodulator, protective against toxicity induced by alcohol and anticancer activity. (2)

    Around 1100 studies since the 1950s

    Studies :

    -Antiviral (2,4,6)

    - SARS-CoV-2 (4, 6)

    -Detoxification of ATD ( Anti-tubercular drugs) therapies (5)

    - anti-inflammatory on respiratory tract infections (7)

    -Decreases the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines in viral infections (7)

    -Cancer (8)

    -Myocardial lesions (9)

    -Alcohol use disorders (10)

    -Acute upper respiratory tract infection (11)

    -Immunomodulator (12)

    1. Kumar S, Singh B, Bajpai V. Andrographis paniculata (Burm.f.) Nees: Traditional uses, phytochemistry, pharmacological properties and quality control/quality assurance. J Ethnopharmacol. 2021 Jul 15;275:114054. doi: 10.1016/j.jep.2021.114054. Epub 2021 Apr 6. PMID: 33831465.

    2. Jadhav AK, Karuppayil SM. Andrographis paniculata (Burm. F) Wall ex Nees: Antiviral properties . Phytother Res. 2021 Oct;35(10):5365-5373. doi:10.1002/ptr.7145. Epub 2021 Apr 30. PMID: 33929758.

    3. Hossain MS, Urbi Z, Sule A, Hafizur Rahman KM. Andrographis paniculata (Burm. f.) Wall. ex Nees: a review of ethnobotany, phytochemistry, and pharmacology. ScientificWorldJournal. 2014;2014:274905. doi:10.1155/2014/274905. Epub 2014 Dec 24. PMID: 25950015; PMCID: PMC4408759.

    4. Sa-Ngiamsuntorn K, Suksatu A, Pewkliang Y, Thongsri P, Kanjanasirirat P, Manopwisedjaroen S, Charoensutthivarakul S, Wongtrakoongate P, Pitiporn S, Chaopreecha J, Kongsomros S, Jearawuttanakul K, Wannalo W, Khemawoot P, Chutipongtanate S, Borwornpinyo S, Thitithanyanont A, Hongeng S. Anti-SARS-CoV-2 Activity of Andrographis paniculata Extract and Its Major Component Andrographolide in Human Lung Epithelial Cells and Cytotoxicity Evaluation in Major Organ Cell Representatives . J Nat Prod. 2021 Apr 23;84(4):1261-1270. doi: 10.1021/acs.jnatprod.0c01324. Epub 2021 Apr 12. PMID: 33844528; PMCID: PMC8056600.

    5. Sharma V, Sharma R, Sharma VL. Andrographis paniculata mitigates first-line anti-tubercular drugs-induced nephrotoxicity in Wistar rats. Biomarkers. 2022 Jun;27(4):325-337. doi:10.1080/1354750X.2022.2043444. Epub 2022 Mar 7. PMID: 35196932.

    6. Intharuksa A, Arunotayanun W, Yooin W, Sirisa-Ard P. A Comprehensive Review of Andrographis paniculata (Burm. f.) Necessities and Its Constituents as Potential Lead Compounds for COVID-19 Drug Discovery. Molecules. 2022 Jul 13;27(14):4479. doi:10.3390/molecules27144479. PMID: 35889352; PMCID: PMC9316804.

    7. Banerjee S, Kar A, Mukherjee PK, Haldar PK, Sharma N, Katiyar CK. Immunoprotective potential of Ayurvedic herb Kalmegh (Andrographis paniculata) against respiratory viral infections - LC-MS/MS and network pharmacology analysis. Phytochem Anal. 2021 Jul;32(4):629-639. doi: 10.1002/pca.3011. Epub 2020 Nov 9. PMID: 33167083.

    8. Naomi R, Bahari H, Ong ZY, Keong YY, Embong H, Rajandram R, Teoh SH, Othman F, Hasham R, Yin KB, Kaniappan P, Yazid MD, Zakaria ZA. Mechanisms of Natural Extracts of Andrographis paniculata That Target Lipid-Dependent Cancer Pathways: A View from the Signaling Pathway. Int J Mol Sci. 2022 May 26;23(11):5972. doi:10.3390/ijms23115972. PMID: 35682652; PMCID: PMC9181071.

    9. Wong SK, Chin KY, Ima-Nirwana S. A review on the molecular basis underlying the protective effects of Andrographis paniculata and andrographolide against myocardial injury. Drug Des Devel Ther. 2021 Nov 10;15:4615-4632. doi: 10.2147/DDDT.S331027. PMID: 34785890; PMCID: PMC8591231.

    10. Stopponi S, Fotio Y, Cifani C, Li H, Haass-Koffler CL, Cannella N, Demopulos G, Gaitanaris G, Ciccocioppo R. Andrographis paniculata and Its Main Bioactive Ingredient Andrographolide Decrease Alcohol Drinking and Seeking in Rats Through Activation of Nuclear PPARγ Pathway. Alcohol Alcohol. 2021 Feb 24;56(2):240-249. doi:10.1093/alcalc/agaa136. PMID: 33401299; PMCID: PMC7906876.

    11. Poolsup N, Suthisisang C, Prathanturarug S, Asawamekin A, Chanchareon U. Andrographis paniculata in the symptomatic treatment of uncomplicated upper respiratory tract infection : systematic review of randomized controlled trials. J Clin Pharm Ther. 2004 Feb;29(1):37-45. doi: 10.1046/j.1365-2710.2003.00534.x. PMID: 14748896.

    12. Rajanna M, Bharathi B, Shivakumar BR, Deepak M, Prashanth D, Prabakaran D, Vijayabhaskar T, Arun B. Immunomodulatory effects of Andrographis paniculata extract in healthy adults - An open-label study. J Ayurveda Integra Med. 2021 Jul-Sep;12(3):529-534. doi: 10.1016/j.jaim.2021.06.004. Epub 2021 Aug 8. PMID: 34376353; PMCID: PMC8377179.

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